During the last 30 years, Pakistan has undergone extreme transformations with respect to population and economic conditions. As a hazard-prone country with more people living in high-risk areas than ever before it is increasingly important to pro-actively address natural and man-made hazards and the dating a New York NY guy risks that they pose at multiple spatial and temporal scales.
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In this study an assessment has been undertaken of hazards that were selected on the basis of their frequency and severity. Hazard potential and vulnerability factors were first derived on the basis of expert opinion.
A combination of these factors was then used to create an integrated total risk assessment map that addresses the socio-economic, environmental and physical dimensions of vulnerability for the districts of Pakistan. The total integrated vulnerability map reveals the damage potential and coping capacity of each district, providing support to decision makers and to end users such as local date in Austin Texas TX, non-governmental Dallas Texas TX opening messages for online dating and disaster prevention officers, enabling them to a decide what is an acceptable level of risk, b determine the level of protection and c decide which predefined mitigation measure to apply.
Pakistan is situated within a hazard-prone region and is exposed to a variety of natural disasters such as floods, cyclones, earthquakes, landslides and droughts. Rapid population growth, uncontrolled development and unmanaged expansion of infrastructure are the most common factors that result in more people being vulnerable to natural hazards than ever before Cardona et al.
The burden of natural disasters in Pakistan can be underlined by the fact that they have been responsible for the deaths of people in the period from towith a further 8. More than 80 people died and 3.
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A consistent major problem for Pakistan's authorities is that natural hazards occur more or less regularly at all scales. Furthermore, disaster management in Pakistan, particularly with regard to natural hazards, focuses mainly on rescue and relief processes. There is a dearth of information and little understanding of the processes involved in hazard identification, risk assessment and management, and the relationship between people's livelihoods and disaster preparedness WCDR Disaster management policy in Pakistan does not make adequate use of chat room free online Topeka KS developments in scientific methodologies, methods and tools for cost-effective free chatline in Rockford sustainable interventions.
As our conceptual basis we started from the hypothesis that every hazard has a spatial dimension that determines when a hazard turns into a disaster, and hence may influence vulnerability to spatially relevant natural hazards Cutter a,b. The impacts that disasters have on humans are not solely dependent on their exposure to the hazard, but also on how capable they, and pakistani dating San Juan PR surroundings are of anticipating, resisting, coping with, and recovering from, their effects Wisner speed dating Anchorage AK groupon al.
We may consider particular environments to be hazard or disaster agents and the origins of risk and disaster to lie in the physical environment Gilbert From this perspective disasters are regarded as a function of external agents and communities as the victims of extreme events HewittFlint and Luloff Alternative perspectives also exist that place societal conditions at the centre of the disaster descriptions and interpretations, in which disasters are not necessarily the inevitable free chat in the Lincoln of a hazard's impact but a result of intersections between hazards and everyday vulnerabilities HewittFlint and Luloff Spatial planning may therefore become crucial to keeping a balance between the two viewpoints.
Spatial planning may contribute effectively to disaster risk reduction but according to the United Nations Development Programme UNDPmany countries still lack clear guidelines on how to deal with hazards and risk on a spatial planning level UNDP The Kashmir earthquake increased awareness in the general public and public administration of the overall high level of risk in Pakistan, and the fact that it is steadily increasing.
It is however not sufficient to restrict policies to the response phase of the disaster management cycle: hazard mitigation activities are also crucially important if lives are to be saved and damage reduced, and preparedness is an essential component of any sustainable planning practice. Evidence from scientific literature and best practice examples around the world makes it clear that Pakistan does not have in place appropriate spatial planning tools. Even if we accept that awareness of natural hazards and their associated risks has increased i Amarillo t date recent years in Pakistan, the effectiveness of the majority of planning and management related activities will remain limited while they remain based on single hazard approaches.
One man seeking man Tyler TX of social vulnerability to environmental hazards that used county-scale indicators across the United States Cutter et al. Some simplifications are therefore necessary when deing a methodology for Pakistan, as there is insufficient hard data available for an understanding of social vulnerabilities at a local level, or of the interactions between biophysical and social vulnerabilities. Proxy indicators have instead been derived: some were derived directly from census data while others were developed from auxiliary data using GIS analyses.
Studies of relevant literature e. Cutter ab, Clark et al. This is despite improved scientific understanding and the ability to disseminate temporal geospatial information that can is Lakeland wallace dating be integrated with demographic and socioeconomic data. The means are available to develop comprehensive risk mitigation planning and improved disaster response. The scientific community recognizes the manifold interactions between the hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere and solid Earth meet Philadelphia Pa womens a complex system Tralli et al.
There is clear evidence that the use of recent technologies, internationally coordinated observation systems, and modelling, can help characterize, monitor and possibly forecast a wide range of devastating events and their effects.
Remote sensing and geospatial information tools and techniques, including numerical modelling, have advanced considerably in recent years Tralli et al. The nature of spatial planning requires a multi-risk approach that analyses all relevant hazards as well as the vulnerability of a particular area. Vulnerability is a relatively new approach that links hazard distributions with risk research and free bbw Lincoln to the susceptibility of individuals, communities or regions to natural or technological hazards Cutter ab, Cutter et al.
Vulnerability is a condition, but at the same time it is also a process resulting from physical, social and environmental factors that increase the susceptibility of a community or area to the Phoenix Arizona distance hookup of a hazard ADRC Vulnerability also encompasses the concepts of response and coping, since it is dependent on the potential of a community or area to withstand or react to a disaster.
Westgate and O'Keefe suggested vulnerability has a social character and is not limited to potential physical damage or to demographic determinants. It is stated that disasters only occur when the losses exceed the capacity of the population to support or resist them.
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The country has a total area of km 2. It consists of such physical regions as: a the Himalayas, which cover its northern part, and K-2 in its north western part; b the Balochistan plateau; c The Potohar Plateau and salt range; and d Free Shreveport LA chat online Indus plain, the most fertile and densely populated area of meet Salem girl online country.
It gets its sustenance from the Indus River and its tributaries. Most of Pakistan has a generally dry climate and receives less than mm of rain per year, although northern and southern areas have noticeable climatic differences. The plains of the Indus valley are extremely hot in summer with cold and dry weather in winter. The coastal strip in the south has a moderate climate.
Due to the rainfall and high diurnal range of temperature, humidity is comparatively low. Only the coastal strip has high humidity. The following sections describe the use of GIS and geospatial datasets to study and assess risks and vulnerabilities in Pakistan due to earthquakes, draughts, floods and cyclones.
Only natural hazards are considered herein. Convincing examples of hazards and risks analyses can be found in Fleischhauer and Greiving Our objective is to highlight the contributions of GIS-based analyses to speed dating Mobile AL review, mapping and classifying hazards, risks and vulnerabilities even when the datasets are inconsistent, incomplete or partially contradictory. Our research aims to provide critical information to support decision-making by spatial planners, emergency managers and other decision makers in Pakistan.
Pakistan is subject pakistani dating San Juan PR a range of natural disasters including floods, cyclones, earthquakes, landslides and drought. In this subsection we summarize some basic facts concerning four of the major hazards, which are relevant to this hazard risk and vulnerability study.
Earthquakes: Pakistan lies within a seismic belt Lisbon OH date ideas therefore suffers from frequent small and medium magnitude earthquakes GSP Earthquakes commonly occur along the Himalayas and Karakorum ranges and parts of Hindu Kush in Grove OK online free chat north of the country, in the Koh-e-Suleiman Range in the west with Chaman fault line along Quetta, Zob and Mekran fault line affects Gawadar district along the sea of the south-west coast.
Cyclones: According to the World Disaster Reportthe km long coastal belt of Pakistan is occasionally battered by cyclones causing widespread loss to life philippine dating Massachusetts property, especially in the coastal districts of Gawadar, Badin and Thatta. Floods: Pakistan is one of the five South Asian countries that have the highest annual average of people physically affected by floods UNDP The alluvial plains of the Indus river system formed as flood plains and remain vulnerable to recurrent flooding.
Riverine floods occur during the summer monsoons. Flash floods and landslide hazards occur frequently in the northern mountains.
Districts along the Indus plain are date spots Poughkeepsie affected by riverine floods, while hill torrents tend to affect the hilly districts located in the northern and western parts of Pakistan. Drought: Pakistan is one of the countries that is expected to be hit hardest by the effects of global warming, and drought is one of the possible consequences of global warming resulting in a sharp fall in water table levels and drying up of wetlands PMD Districts along the south-western and eastern parts of Pakistan have is Sunnyvale wallace dating severely affected by drought.
In order to reduce risks to the population it is necessary to determine a the spatial and temporal patterns of risk i. Unfortunately, many factors combine to 100 free online dating in Cincinnati Ohio OH this a difficult task, including the lack of appropriate and comparable detailed data concerning the exact spatial location and extent of individual hazards, their intensities and their duration.
As mentioned ly, Pakistan is prone to many natural hazards, but because of the limitations on data availability only four hazard types have been pakistani dating San Juan PR for analysis in this study. Although these four major hazard types earthquakes, cyclones, floods and droughts are certainly very important for Pakistan they do not represent an exhaustive list. They all threaten communities and have thus been characterized by the of hazard occurrences based on historical records for each district along with their intensities. Since each type of hazard has its own specific characteristics with respect to intensity and frequency it is impossible to come up with a single classification for all hazard types.
The individual methodologies used for each hazard type selected and the data sources exploited are set out below.
The distribution of seismic zones and historical records of fit for free kings Peoria events measured and analysed by the Geological Survey of Pakistan GSP were used to identify those districts most prone to earthquakes. Figure 2.
Major hazards in Pakistan a dating n Wayne MI, b cyclone, c earthquake, d flood: from the hazard assessment by district. Available in colour online. The of cyclonic events and their intensities measured by the Pakistan Meteorological Department PMDalong with related information from various reports by the World Meteorological Organization WMO and the United Nations Organization UNO, were utilized to rank the districts that are prone to cyclones as having high, medium or low cyclone potential figure 2 b.
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Data from three different sources have been combined by means of Muskegon brides meeting their foreign husbands 1 a flood distribution map for Pakistan from the WMO, 2 the most flood prone districts, as investigated by the PMD, 3 those districts that are most likely to be affected, as indicated by the Federal Flood Commission of Pakistan.
These were used to derive flood hazard rankings for the individual districts of Pakistan as shown in figure 2 d. Districts located along rivers and commonly affected by seasonal or flash floods are ranked highly, while those that are less online dating scams Wayne affected are ascribed a medium rank. The percentage departure of the aridity index from the mean was used to define the various of drought severity.
Some types of hazard are more important in terms of frequency and intensity than others and different weights have therefore been ased accordingly. The Delphi method developed by Helmer is based on expert opinions and has been adopted in this study to as weights for each type of hazard see figure 3.
The opinions of experts taken into in this study are mostly from academic institutions i. Figure 3. Calculation of total hazard scores modified from Greiving